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InstaLinks :  help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 2:
1. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act
Facts for Prelims:
1. Guru Nanak
2. National Florence Nightingale Awards 2021
3. Pulitzer Prize
5. 22nd Law Commission
6. Record high Currency in circulation
7. Purchase of Gold
8. Basmati Rice
9. World Heritage Glaciers (WHG) Sentinels of Climate Change
10. Digi Yatra’s data privacy
11. Protected system/Critical Information Infrastructure
12. Beaver blood moon
13. Mapping
Syllabus: Issues related to children
Source: The Hindu 1, 2
About the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act:
Salient features:
POCSO Act’s performance in comparison to global standards:
Way ahead: Recently, the Karnataka HC has directed the State Education Department to set up a mechanism for educating students, at least from Class IX onwards about the act and its provisions.
Insta Links:
Expanding the scope of the POCSO Act
Mains Links:
Q. To put an end to child sexual abuse, the scope of the POCSO act must be enhanced not narrowed. Critically comment in the light of recent judicial rulings on POCSO.
Source: The Hindu
Context: The 553rd birth anniversary of Sikh Guru Nanak Dev is celebrated on November 8, 2022.
 Guru Nanak Dev:
Source: PIB
Context: President presented the award to the nursing profession.
Florence Nightingale was a British Nurse, Statistician and social reformer, born in Florence, Taly (1820).
National Florence Nightingale Awards was instituted in 1973 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare to recognize meritorious service rendered by nursing professionals in India
To mark the 200th anniversary of Florence Nightingale, WHO announced the year 2020 as the year of the Nurse and Mid-Wife.
 Source: The Hindu
Context: A Jammu and Kashmir political party recently stated that the people of J&K are being punished for excelling in life following the repeal of Article 370, as evidenced by preventing a Kashmiri journalist (Sanna Mattoo) from accepting the Pulitzer Prize in person.
About the Pulitzer Prize:
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution:
Source: The Hindu
Context: According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) annual report (2021-22), the FCRA was amended in 2020 to discourage expenditure by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on unproductive items.
About the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA):
Source: Indian Express
Context: After two and a half years, the 22nd Law Commission of India has been constituted with Justice (retd) Rituraj Awasthi as its head. Commission would have a tenure of three years.
Terms of reference of 22nd Law Commission:
The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body that is constituted by a notification of the Government of India, with definite terms of reference to carry out research in the field of law.
Source: Indian Express
Context: Despite the increase in digitization, cash with the public is at a record high of over 30 lakh cr, six years since demonetisation (over 71% higher than the level for November 2016).
Demonetisation is the process by which the demonetised notes cease to be accepted as legal currency for any kind of transaction.
Reason for a high amount of Cash in circulation:
The government has claimed that demonetization gave a “major push to the digital economy” in 2020. Undisclosed assets worth Rs 7,877 crore were seized,” and undisclosed income worth “Rs 87, 200” has been admitted.
Source: Outlook India
Context: Central Banks the world over are buying Gold as the economic uncertainty grows.
As per the World Gold Council, Indian Central Bank (RBI) bought over 191 tonnes of gold worth Rs 85,010 crore in Q3 2022.
Reasons: The current global inflation (Energy and Food prices) and risk of recession have led to growing uncertainty in the world economic situation.
However, higher gold imports carry the risk of a high current account deficit (CAD) and Gold is also the preferred mode of avoiding taxes for Hawala Operations.
The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry. It works across all parts of the industry, from gold mining to investment, with the aim of stimulating and sustaining demand for gold.
Source: Business-Standard
Context:  Government will disallow the blending of more than 15% non-basmati rice with basmati rice for the product that is sold as blended ‘Basmati’ Rice.
Reasons behind the move: Government intends to ensure that the purity of Indian Basmati Rice doesn’t dilute due to excessive blending. Rice blended with more than 15% non-basmati rice will be called ‘blended Rice’ instead of ‘blended Basmati Rice’.
Basmati rice has its origin in the Indian subcontinent and has a unique fragrance (due to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline). India is the largest producer (over 70% of global production). GI tag has been provided to Basmati grown in some of the states such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand etc.
Source: IUCN, The Hindu
 Context: Recently, UNESCO and IUCN released this report, which outlines 50 world heritage sites and provides suggestions for their protection.
World Heritage glaciers cover almost 10% of the Earth’s glacierized area and play a crucial role in sustaining life on Earth. However, they are retreating at an accelerated rate because of climate change.
E.g. of world heritage glaciers: Dolomites of Italy and on Tanzania’s Mount Kilimanjaro, as well as the world’s highest glaciers (near Mt. Everest) and the longest glacier (located in Alaska).
Key observations:
A World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by UNESCO for its special cultural or physical significance. The list of World Heritage Sites is maintained by the international ‘World Heritage Programme’, administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
Source: Business-Standards
Context: NITI Aayog seeks clarity from the Centre on Digi Yatra’s data privacy especially related to passenger data storage, compliance with the laws, the trustworthiness of the ecosystem governing Digi Yatra, and a flight boarding system that uses this technology
Niti Aayog recommendations: Perform Algorithmic audits, and cyber security audits, prior to system deployment etc.
Kindly click this link for coverage of FRT technologies
 Source: The Hindu
Context: The websites and applications related to the decennial Census exercise and the National Population Register (NPR) were recently notified as a “protected system” or “Critical Information Infrastructure” under the Information Technology (IT) Act, 2008.
About Critical Information Infrastructure/protected system:
The notification means that any tampering or unauthorised access to the data associated with such a protected system will be punishable by 10 years of imprisonment.
Source: Indian Express
Context: Earth, moon and sun will align to produce a total lunar eclipse for the last time until 2025.
A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth casts its shadow completely over a full moon, blocking the reflection of all direct sunlight from the lunar orb and dimming the colour of the moon to a reddish hue, hence the term “blood moon.”
This is only possible when the orbits of the Earth, moon and sun align so that the moon is directly behind Earth relative to the sun. Otherwise, the moon passes above or below Earth’s shadow because its orbit around Earth is usually tilted relative to Earth’s orbit around the sun.
Why red?
The reddish appearance of the lunar surface – the moon does not entirely disappear from view – is caused by rays of sunlight around the outer edge of the eclipse shadow, or umbra, being filtered and refracted as it passes through Earth’s atmosphere, bathing the moon indirectly in a dim copper glow.
The degree of redness depends on atmospheric conditions that vary with levels of air pollution, dust storms, wildfire smoke and even volcanic ash.
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